Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants fall into two main categories: thermal treatment and biological processing of organic waste. These processes use various technologies, including gasification, plasma-arc gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and combustion.

The type of technology utilised in any project is dependent on the characteristics of the feedstock waste material. Similarly, the outputs and residues from WTE processes also vary, depending on the nature of the feedstock and the technology used. Sources of waste feedstock include bio-sludge, industrial waste, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), medical waste, and agricultural waste.

WTE plants offer a sustainable source of renewable energy with significant positive environmental and economic impacts, including eliminating landfilling and reducing Green House Gas (GHG) Emissions.